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20S core particle

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default 20S core particle

Post by taixyz1992 on Mon Nov 22, 2010 11:43 pm

The number and diversity of subunits contained in the 20S core particle depends on the organism; the number of distinct and specialized subunits is larger in multicellular than unicellular organisms and larger in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. All 20S particles consist of four stacked heptameric ring structures that are themselves composed of two different types of subunits; α subunits are structural in nature, whereas β subunits are predominantly catalytic. The outer two rings in the stack consist of seven α subunits each, which serve as docking domains for the regulatory particles and the alpha subunits N-termini form a gate that blocks unregulated access of substrates to the interior cavity.[14] The inner two rings each consist of seven β subunits and contain the protease active sites that perform the proteolysis reactions. The size of the proteasome is relatively conserved and is about 150 angstroms () by 115 . The interior chamber is at most 53 wide, though the entrance can be as narrow as 13 , suggesting that substrate proteins must be at least partially unfolded to enter.[15]

In archaea such as Thermoplasma acidophilum, all the α and all the β subunits are identical, while eukaryotic proteasomes such as those in yeast contain seven distinct types of each subunit. In mammals, the β1, β2, and β5 subunits are catalytic; although they share a common mechanism, they have three distinct substrate specificities considered chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and peptidyl-glutamyl peptide-hydrolyzing (PHGH).[16] Alternative β forms denoted β1i, β2i, and β5i can be expressed in hematopoietic cells in response to exposure to pro-inflammatory signals such as cytokines, in particular, interferon gamma. The proteasome assembled with these alternative subunits is known as the immunoproteasome, whose substrate specificity is altered relative to the normal proteasome


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